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28. March 2021 16:11
by Admin
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a or di?

28. March 2021 16:11 by Admin | 0 Comments

 

Italian Verbs That Demand A

The proposition a can link a verb to an object such as a noun or a pronoun, or a verb in the infinitive. For example: to get used to the weather; to get used to doing something.

 

Connecting to a Noun or Pronoun With A

These verbs connect through a to someone or something.

Abituarsi a to get used to  Ci si abitua a tutto. One gets used to anything. 
Assistere a to sit in/watch Ho assistito alla sua prova.  I sat in on his exam. 
Assomigliare a  to resemble  Assomiglia a sua sorella.  He resembles his sister. 
Credere a to believe  Non credo alle tue bugie. I don't believe your lies. 
Dare fastidio a  to bother  Non dare fastidio al cane.  Don't bother the dog. 
Fare un regalo a to give a gift to Ho fatto un regalo alla maestra.  I gave a gift to the teacher. 
Fermarsi a  to stop at  Luca non si ferma a nulla.  Luca will stop at nothing. 
Giocare a to play Giochiamo a tennis.  Let's play tennis. 
Insegnare a  to teach Lucia ha insegnato a mia figlia.  Lucia taught my daughter. 
Interessarsi a  to take an interest in Mi sono interessato alla tua famiglia.  I took an interest in your family. 
Partecipare a  to participate in Orazio non partecipa alla gara. Orazio is not participating in the race. 
Pensare a  to think about  Franco non pensa mai a nessuno. Franco never thinks about anyone. 
Ricordare a  to remind  Ti ricordo che domani andiamo al mare.  I remind you that tomorrow we are going to the sea. 
Rinunciare a  to renounce/give up Devo rinunciare a questa casa.  I must give up this house. 
Servire a  to serve a purpose Non serve a nulla piangere.  It serves no purpose to cry. 
Spedire a  to send to Spedisco il pacco a Carola domani.  I will send the package to Carola tomorrow. 
Tenere a  to care about  Tengo molto alle mie fotografie.  I care very much about my pictures. 

Connecting to an Infinitive With A

These are verbs that use a to connect to another verb: to begin to do something.

Abituarsi a  to get used to  Mi sono abituata a fare da sola.  I have gotten used to doing things on my own. 
Affrettarsi a to hurry to  Affrettati a portare il cane fuori.  Hurry to take the dog out. 
Aiutare a to help to  Ti aiuto a portare la torta alla nonna.  I'll help you take the cake to Grandma's.
Cominciare a  to begin to Oggi comincio a leggere il libro.  Today I'll begin reading the book. 
Continuare a  to continue to  Marco continua a fare errori nei compiti.  Marco continues to make mistakes in his homework. 
Convincersi a  to convince oneself to  Mi sono convinta ad andare.  I have convinced myself to go. 
Costringere a  to force someone to  Non puoi costringermi a stare in casa.  You cannot force me to stay home. 
Decidersi a to make up one's mind to  Luca si è deciso a studiare di più. Luca has made up his mind to study more. 
Divertirsi a  to have fun doing sth I bambini si divertono a tirare la coda al gatto.  The children have fun pulling the cat's tail. 
Fermarsi a  to stop to  Mi sono fermata a fare benzina.  I stopped to get gas. 
Insegnare a  to teach to  La nonna ci ha insegnato a fare i biscotti.  Grandma taught us to make cookies. 
Invitare a  to invite to  Ti voglio invitare a leggere un brano del tuo libro.  I want to invite you to read an excerpt of your book. 
Mandare a  to send to  Ho mandato Paolo a prendere il pane.  I sent Paolo to get the bread. 
Mettersi a  to set out/begin to  Ci siamo messi a guardare un film.  We began watching a film. 
Passare a to stop by to  Passo a prendere i bambini tra un ora.  I'll stop by to get the children in an hour. 
Pensare a  to take care of  Ci penso io ad aggiustare tutto.  I'll take care of fixing everything. 
Prepararsi a  to prepare to  Ci prepariamo a partire.  We are preparing to leave. 
Provare a to try to  Proviamo a parlare con la mamma.  Let's try to talk to mom. 
Rimanere a  to remain/
stay to 
Rimani a mangiare? Are you staying to eat? 
Rinunciare a  to give up  Dopo la guerra tutti i bambini dovettero rinunciare ad andare a scuola.  After the war all the children had to give up going to school. 
Riprendere a  to get back to Luca vuole riprendere a studiare il francese.  Luca wants to get back to studying French. 
Riuscire a  to succeed at Voglio riuscire a fare questa torta complicata.  I want to succeed at making this complicated cake. 
Sbrigarsi a  to hurry to  Sbrigati a lavare i piatti.  Hurry up to wash the dishes. 
Servire a  to serve to  Questo carrello serve a portare i libri di sotto.  This cart serves to take the books downstairs. 
Tenere a  to care to/about  Tengo a precisare che la mia posizione non è cambiata. I care to point out that my position has not changed. 

Verbs of Movement That Want by ABeforeObject or Infinitive

Verbs of movement use a to connect with a noun or a verb, except for a few that want dapartire da (to leave from), venire/provenire da (to come from), allontanarsi da (to distance oneself from).

Andare a   to go to 1. Vado a casa. 2. Vado a visitare il museo.  1. I'm going home. 2. I'm going to visit the museum. 
Correre a  to run to 1. Corriamo a cena. 2. Corriamo a vedere il film. 1. We are running to dinner. 2. We are running to see a movie. 
Fermarsi a  to stop to 1. Ci fermiamo al mercato. 2. Ci fermiamo a mangiare.  1. We are stopping at the market. 2. We are stopping to eat. 
Passare a  to stop by to Passo a prendere il cane.  I'll stop by to get the dog. 
Restare a  to stay to 1. Restiamo a casa. 2. Restiamo a mangiare. 1. We are staying home. 2. We are staying to eat. 
Tornare a  to return to  1. Torniamo a scuola. 2. Torniamo a prenderti alle due.  1. We are returning to school. 2. We are returning to get you at two.
Venire a  to come to 1. Venite alla festa? 2. Venite a mangiare all'una.  1. Are you coming to the party? 2. You are coming to eat at one. 
 

Italian Verbs That Demand Di

The preposition di can link a verb to an object such as a noun or a pronoun, or to another verb in the infinitive (or both, depending on the meaning).

 

Connecting to a Noun or Pronoun With Di

Accontentarsi di  to make do/
be happy with 
Mi accontento della mia vita.  I am happy with my life. 
Approfittarsi di to take advantage of  Voglio approfittare dell'occasione.  I want to take advantage of the occasion. 
Avere bisogno di  to need  Ho bisogno di acqua.  I need water. 
Avere paura di to be afraid of  Ho paura di te.  I am scared of you. 
Dimenticarsi di  to forget  Dimenticati di lui.  Forget him. 
Fidarsi di  to trust  Fidati di lui.  Trust him. 
Innamorarsi di  to fall in love with  Mi sono innamorata di lui.  I fell in love with him. 
Interessarsi di  to take an interest in Il prof si interessa dei miei studi.  The teacher takes an interest in my studies. 
Lamentarsi di  to complain about  Non mi lamento di niente.  I am not complaining about anything. 
Meravigliarsi di  to be amazed by  Mi meraviglio della bellezza dei colori.  I am amazed by the beauty of the colors. 
Occuparsi di  to take care of  Giulia si occupa della casa.  Giulia takes care of the house. 
Ricordarsi di  to remember  Non mi sono ricordata della festa.  I did not remember the party. 
Ringraziare di  to thank for Ti ringrazio del regalo.  I thank you for the gift. 
Scusarsi di to apologize for  Mi scuso del disturbo.  I apologize for my tardiness. 
Vivere di  to live of  Vivo di poco.  I live of little. 
 

Connecting toan Infinitive With Di

Accettare di  to accept  Accetto di dover partire. I accept having to leave. 
Accontentarsi di   to make do/be happy with Ci accontentiamo di avere questa casa.  We make do with this house. 
Accorgersi di  to notice  Ci siamo accorti di essere in ritardo.   We noticed we were late. 
Ammettere di  to admit to Il ladro ha ammesso di avere rubato la macchina.  The thief admitted having stolen the car. 
Aspettare di  to wait for  Aspetto di vedere cosa succede.  I'll wait to see what happens. 
Augurarsi di  to wish for  Ti auguro di guarire presto.  I wish/hope you get better soon. 
Avere bisogno di to need  Ho bisogno di vedere un dottore.  I need to see a doctor. 
Cercare di  to try to Cerco di capirti.  I try to understand you. 
Chiedere di  to ask Ho chiesto di poter uscire.  I asked to be allowed out. 
Confessare di  to confess Il ladro ha confessato di avere rubato la macchina.  The thief confessed to stealing the car. 
Consigliare di  to advise Ti consiglio di aspettare.  I advise you to wait. 
Contare di to count on Contiamo di poter venire.  We are counting on coming. 
Credere di  to believe that Credo di avere capito.  I think I have understood. 
Dispiacere di  to be sorry for  Mi dispiace di averti ferito.  I am sorry to have hurt you. 
Dimenticarsi di  to forget to Vi siete dimenticati di portare il pane.  You forgot to bring the bread. 
Decidere di  to decide to Ho deciso di andare a Berlino.  I decided to go to Berlin. 
Dire di  to tell/say Ho detto a Carlo di venire.  I told Carlo to come. 
Evitare di  to avoid Ho evitato di andare addosso al muro.  I avoided hitting the wall. 
Fingere di  to pretend that Andrea ha finto di sentirsi male.  Andrea pretended to be sick. 
Finire di  to finish Abbiamo finito di studiare.  We finished studying. 
Lamentarsi di to complain about Non mi lamento di essere qui.  I don't complain for being here. 
Occuparsi di to take care of  Ci siamo occupati di aggiustare tutto.  We took care of fixing everything. 
Parere di  to seem to Mi pare di aver fatto il possibile.  It seems to me to have done what was possible. 
Pensare di  to think Penso di venire oggi.  I think I'll come today. 
Pregare di  to pray Prego di avere la pazienza per aspettare.  I pray to have the patience to wait. 
Proibire di  to forbid  Ti proibisco di uscire!  I forbid you to go out!
Promettere di  to promise Ti prometto di aspettare.  I promise to wait. 
Ricordarsi di  to remember Ti ricordi di prendere il vino?  Will you remember to get the wine? 
Ringraziare di to thank for Ti ringrazio di averci aiutati.  I thank you for having helped us. 
Scusarsi di to apologize for Mi scuso di averti offeso.  I apologize for having offended you. 
Sembrare di  to seem to  Il cane sembra voler uscire.  The dog seems to want to go out. 
Smettere di  to quit Ho smesso di fumare.  I quit smoking. 
Sperare di  to hope Spero di vederti.  I hope to see you. 
Suggerire di  to suggest Ti suggerisco di aspettare.  I advise you to wait. 
Tentare di  to attempt to Tentiamo di parlare con Vanessa.  We'll attempt to speak to Vanessa. 
 

Italian Verbs That Demand Su

These verbs use su to connect to a noun or pronoun:

 
Contare su to count on Conto su di te.  I am counting on you. 
Giurare su to swear on Giuro sulla mia vita.  I swear on my life. 
Leggere su to read in  L'ho letto sul giornale. I read it in the paper. 
Riflettere su to reflect on  Ho riflettutto sul problema.  I have reflected upon the problem. 
Soffermarsi su  to linger on  Il professore si è soffermato sulla sua teoria.  The teacher lingered on his theory. 
 

Italian Verbs That Want Per

These verbs use per to connect to a noun or pronoun or another verb.

 
Dispiacere per  to be sorry for  1. Mi dispiace per la tua sofferenza. 2. Mi dispiace per averti ferito.  1. I am sorry for your suffering. 2. I am sorry for having hurt you. 
Finire per to end up Luca è finito per andare a scuola.  Luca ended up going to school. 
Prepararsi per  to prepare for  Mi sono preparato per il tuo arrivo.  I prepared for your arrival.
Ringraziare per to thank for  1. Ti ringrazio per la tua comprensione. 2. Ti ringrazio per avermi capita.  1. I thank you for your understanding. 2. I thank you for having understood me. 
Scusarsi per to apologize for  1. Mi scuso per il disturbo. 2. Mi scuso per averti disturbato.  1. I am sorry for the bother. 2. I am sorry for having bothered you.
Servire per  to need for  Non mi serve il tavolo per insegnare.  I don't need the table to teach. 
 

Verbs Without Preposition Before Another Verb

Of course, you know that helping verbs doverepotere, and volere do not need any preposition to connect to another verb: Devo andare (I must go); non posso parlare (I cannot speak). There are others:

 
amare  to love  Amo parlare di te.  I love to talk about you. 
desiderare  to desire  Desidero vedere Roma.  I desire to see Rome. 
fare (fare) to make someone do sth Oggi ti faccio lavorare.  Today I am going to make you work. 
lasciare  to work Domani ti lascio dormire.  Tomorrow I will let you sleep. 
odiare to hate Odio lasciarti.  I hate to leave you. 
piacere  to like Mi piace guardare il paesaggio.  I like to look at the countryside. 
preferire to prefer Preferisco ballare che studiare.  I prefer to dance than to study. 
sapere  to know Maria sa parlare il francese.  Maria knows how to speak French.

28. March 2021 15:20
by Admin
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Italian Reflexive Verbs

28. March 2021 15:20 by Admin | 0 Comments

In Italian, some verbs are reflexive, meaning that the person doing the action does it to him or herself. Examples of this would be “mettersi” (to put a piece of clothing on), “chiamarsi” (literally “to call oneself”), and “sentirsi” (to feel). In the dictionary, you may notice that the infinitive has “si” on the end to show the verb is reflexive.

Reflexive verbs have their own pronouns:

io - mi, tu - ti, lui/lei/Lei - si, noi - ci, voi - vi, loro - si

These pronouns match the verb (“mi” with the “io” form, “ti” with “tu,” etc.) and are usually placed before the verb:

Mi metto la giacca. I put on my coat." (from https://www.duolingo.com/skill/it/Clitic-Pronouns-1/tips-and-notes)

17. February 2021 23:54
by Admin
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German Sex

17. February 2021 23:54 by Admin | 0 Comments

 Is that man OK and what happened to the pilot of that small plane?

 

Masculine (der):

  • Male persons and animals
  • days of the week, months of the year
  • seasons, and most weather elements 
  • car makes
  • monetary units
  • non-German river names
  • rocks and minerals
  • mountains and mountain ranges
  • and alcoholic and plant-based drinks

Feminine (die):

  • Female persons and animals
  • Rivers within Germany, Austria, Switzerland
  • Airplanes, motorcycles, ships
  • Numbers used as nouns
  • Trees, fruits, and flowers
  • Nouns formed from measurement or size adjectives

Neuter (das):

  • Young persons and baby animals
  • metals and chemical elements
  • names of continents, cities, provinces, and most countries
  • scientific units & measurements
  • letters of the alphabet and music notes
  • hotels, cafes, restaurants, and movie theaters
  • other parts of speech used as nouns (gerunds, colors, languages, English -ing forms).

Masculine: -ant, -ast, -ich, -ig, -ismus, -ling, -or, -us

Feminine: -a, -anz, -enz, -ei, -ie, -heit, -keit, -ik, -sion, -tion, -sis, -tät, -ung, -ur, schaft

Neuter: -chen, -lein, -icht, -il, -it, -ma, -ment, -tel, -tum, -um

8. February 2021 14:50
by Admin
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Prepositions after verbs

8. February 2021 14:50 by Admin | 0 Comments

Prepositions after verbs - Easy Learning Grammar Italian

  • English verbs are often followed by prepositions, for example, I’m relying on you, They’ll write to him, He was accused of murder.
  • The same is true of Italian verbs, which are often followed by prepositions.
  • entrare in to go into
Siamo entrati in aula. We went into the classroom.
  • As in English, Italian verbs can be followed by two prepositions.
parlare a qualcuno di qualcosa to talk to someone about something
  • With some verbs the Italian preposition may not be the one you would expect. For example, to in English is not always a in Italian, di is not always translated by of and so forth. The most important ones of these are shown in the examples on the following pages.
  • For more information on Verbs used with a preposition and the infinitive, see The Infinitive.
TipWhen you learn a new verb, check if there’s a preposition that goes with it, and learn that too.

1  Verbs followed by a

  • a is used with the indirect object of verbs such as dire (meaning to say) and dare (meaning to give).
dare qualcosa a qualcuno to give something to someone
dire qualcosa a qualcuno to say something to someone
mandare qualcosa a qualcuno to send something to someone
scrivere qualcosa a qualcuno to write something to someone
mostrare qualcosa a qualcuno to show something to someone
TipIn English you can say to give someone something. In Italian you cannot leave out the preposition – you have to use a with the person who is the indirect object.
  • Here are some verbs taking a in Italian when you might not expect it, since the English equivalent either does not have the preposition to or has no preposition at all:
arrivare a (una città) to arrive at (a town)
avvicinarsi a qualcuno to approach someone
chiedere qualcosa a qualcuno to ask someone for something
far male a qualcuno to hurt someone
giocare a qualcosa to play something (game/sport)
insegnare qualcosa a qualcuno to teach somebody something
partecipare a qualcosa to take part in something
rispondere a qualcuno to answer someone
rivolgersi a qualcuno to ask someone
somigliare a qualcuno to look like someone
permettere a qualcuno di fare qualcosa to allow someone to do something
proibire a qualcuno di fare qualcosa to forbid someone to do something
rubare qualcosa a qualcuno to steal something from someone
ubbidire a qualcuno to obey someone
 
Chiedi a Lidia come si chiama il suo cane. Ask Lidia what her dog’s called.
Quando arrivi a Londra? When do you arrive in London?
Parteciperai alla gara? Are you going to take part in the competition?
Non permette a Luca di uscire. She doesn’t allow Luca to go out.
  • For verbs such as piaceremancare and rincrescere, see Verbal idioms on Verbal Idioms.
TipRemember that you often have to use a preposition with an Italian verb when there is no preposition in English.

2  Verbs followed by di

  • Here are some verbs taking di in Italian when the English verb is not followed by of:
accorgersi di qualcosa to realize something
aver bisogno di qualcosa to need something
aver voglia di qualcosa to want something
discutere di qualcosa to discuss something
fidarsi di qualcosa/qualcuno to trust something/someone
intendersi di qualcosa to know about something
interessarsi di qualcosa to be interested in something
lamentarsi di qualcosa to complain about something
ricordarsi di qualcosa/qualcuno to remember something/someone
ridere di qualcosa/qualcuno to laugh at something/someone
stufarsi di qualcosa/qualcuno to get fed up with something/someone
stupirsi di qualcosa to be amazed by something
trattare di qualcosa to be about something
vantarsi di qualcosa to boast about something
 
Non mi fido di lui. I don’t trust him.
Ho bisogno di soldi. I need money.
Discutono spesso di politica. They often discuss politics.
Mi sono stufato di loro. I got fed up with them.

3  Verbs followed by da

  • Here are some verbs taking da in Italian when the English verb is not followed
    by from:
dipendere da qualcosa/qualcuno to depend on something/someone
giudicare da qualcosa to judge by something
scendere da qualcosa to get off something (bus, train, plane)
sporgersi da qualcosa to lean out of something
 
Dipende dal tempo. It depends on the weather.

4  Verbs that are followed by a preposition in English but not in Italian

  • Although the English verb is followed by a preposition, you don’t use a preposition with the following Italian verbs:
guardare qualcosa/qualcuno to look at something/someone
ascoltare qualcosa/qualcuno to listen to something/someone
cercare qualcosa/qualcuno to look for something/someone
chiedere qualcosa to ask for something
aspettare qualcosa/qualcuno to wait for something/someone
pagare qualcosa to pay for something
Guarda la sua faccia. Look at his face.
Mi stai ascoltando? Are you listening to me?
Sto cercando la chiave. I’m looking for my key.
Ha chiesto qualcosa da mangiare. He asked for something to eat.
Aspettami! Wait for me!
Ho già pagato il biglietto. I’ve already paid for my ticket.

 

8. February 2021 14:11
by Admin
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Italian Clitcs from Duo Lingo by Murray Abby

8. February 2021 14:11 by Admin | 0 Comments

Italian Clitcs from Duo Lingo by Murray Abby

Murray's chart has been re-integrated for ease of use.

First of all, let's hear from Marta:

So these are used with the transitive verbs, which makes it easier to understand which to use.

The difference between indirect and direct pronouns is usually the presence of a preposition. This can be thought of more easily as a pre-position. These proceed the pronoun in English and are obvious in phrases such as 

She sent the letter to you.

I will get the package for you.

The pronoun you is indirect in these cases.

A direct pronoun has no pre-position and so takes form such as:

No Susan, she wants you to go with her.

Are you finished?

These are direct pronouns and have no preposition/por-position. Their position is absolute and no pretext is required.

So the only difference between direct and indirect in an Italian sentence, is also a preposition. The two most common prepositions in Italian are “a” and “di”.  But there are others, such as "su", "per", "con", "da", ...etc. A preposition is a "linking" word that "shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence." In English, "to", "of", "on", "by", "with", "from", ...as above.

In Murray's diagram, you will notice that for the same object/ subject for both direct and indirect pronouns, some of the terms are shared; specifically “mi”, “ti”, “ci” and “vi”.

So the lazy method is to memorize that the presence of the English words to OR for are a giveaway for “indirect”, keeping in mind that it doesn’t work for verb infinitives— mangiare is the verb “to eat”, but there are no pronouns involved there, so there’s never any “direct” or “indirect” verbs. Only with objects and people. (We’re not even going to start discussing “Piacere” here, so forget that!)

So looking at a few lines of the table, you’ll see that:

  • mi means me (direct), but both mi and a me mean either to me , or for me (indirect).

  • lo means him (direct), but gli means either to him , or for him (indirect) , or even to/ for them (indirect).

and so on.

Thus; if you give something to someone, or make something for someone, then you need to look on that table for the indirect object pronoun. Again, the presence of “to” or “for” is your quick magic reminder for indirect objects but, indeed, any preposition should raise the same flag.

You probably already know this, now, but the “clitic” pronoun form is placed in front of the verb form. The verb form tells you who the person performing the action (a verb) is.

It is easy to practice in English. You would never say “To him I see”, so in Italian you would never say “Gli vedo”, because “Gli” is “To him”. Not just plain “him”; “To him”. Meanwhile, you’d never say “I give a book her”. You’d say “I give a book to her”, so “to her” is le , not la and you’d obviously use “Le dò un libro”. Where it sometimes gets tricky is when the preposition is only implied in English. “I read him a book” or “I ask her a question” needs to be considered in Italian as “I read (to) him a book” and “I ask (of her) a question”.

Here are some basic examples to help (and hopefully not confuse) you:

  • ama He loves or She loves (or even It loves ); Ci ama he/ she/ it loves us.

  • scrivo I write ; Lo scrivo I write it. Note that it wouldn’t be, “I write him” or “her”. Meanwhile...

  • gli scrivo; gli is “to him”, so then I write to him.

  • Le is “to her”, so then le scrivo I write to her. Unfortunately, le is also feminine “them” on the direct pronoun side, so if the subjects being written are all of feminine gender, Le scrivo could also mean “I write them”.

  • What about a double pronoun sentence? “I read it to him”? That’s easy: Lo leggo a lui

  • I see you Ti vedo (there is no “to” or “for”, so use the table for direct object pronoun).

  • I play for him Gli suono (it can’t be direct, Lo suono, because of the word “for”). You can say the very same thing by using the “stressed form”, but after the verb: Suono a lui.

  • Lo suono is “I play it” (it being a direct object, masculine, such as “un flauto”. Use La suono for “I play it”, it being a direct feminine object, such as “una chitarra”).

The Stressed pronouns do not get placed before the verb; they come after it.

Many of them can also be placed into the verb.

  • Posso farlo (I can do it), comes by dropping the "e" from Fare (to do) and adding the pronoun "lo". Do that with most any verb infinitive.

Finally, when used in a negative sentence, the pronoun always goes between non and the verb: Non lo vedo = "I don't see him", or "I don't see it".

That should get you well on the way, and at least 3/4 the way through the Clitics lessons. I’ll leave it to others to explain “Ce” and “Ne”.

By the way, you can quickly spot a Reflexive Sentence if the subject and the pronoun being used are on the same line of the table above, or if the word “si” is present before a verb. (And not sì, meaning “yes”...).

  • Mi lavo; I wash myself (same line for io (lavo) and Mi makes this sentence reflexive).

  • Ti vedi; You see yourself (Tu vedi and Ti on the same line).

  • Ci chiediamo; We ask ourselves (Noi chiediamo/ Ci on the same line).

The word “si” goes in place of him/ her/ it and also them, so there is no Gli/ Lo/ La/ Le/ Li to worry about in reflexive:

  • Si lava; He washes himself, or She washes herself, (or even) It washes itself.

  • Si lavano; They wash themselves. It is obviously not “They wash himself”. “They wash him”, on the other hand, is not reflexive, does not use “si”, and is simply “Lo lavano -- as per the rules on direct pronouns, in the initial section of this essay.

 

ne, ci and se - Learning Grammar Italian

  • ne and ci are two extremely useful pronouns which have no single equivalent
    in English. There are some phrases where you have to use them in Italian.

Ci substitutes phrases or words introduced by: a, in, con, su or with places. 

No, non ci voglio uscire 

 

Ne substitutes phrases or words introduced by: di/della or with amounts/quantities. To have / avere.

sei felice della sorpresa?

 

1  ne

  • ne is a pronoun with several meanings.
  • It can refer to amounts and quantities.
  • Ne is used with words and phrases that are introduced by DA or DI
  • It means some, and can be used without a noun, as in English.

So it is used with: Bisogno, avere, essere, felice,  essere sicuro, parlare, sentire parlare, dimenticarsi, non sapere niente.

Ne vuoi? Would you like some?
Vuoi del pane? – Ne ho grazie. Would you like some bread? –
I’ve got some, thanks.
  • In English, when talking about amounts and quantities, you can say How much do you want of it?or How much do you want? and How many do you want of them?, or How many do you want? Ne translates of it and of them but it is not optional. So you need to remember to use it in sentences of the kind shown below.
Ne ho preso la metà. I’ve taken half (of it).
Ne vuoi la metà? Do you want half (of it/of them)?
Quanti ne vuole? How many (of them) do you want?
Ne voglio pochi. I don’t want many (of them).
  • Ne also means about it/themof it/them, with it/them, and so on, when used with Italian adjectives or verbs which are followed by di, for example contento di (meaning happy about), stufo di (meaning fed up with), aver paura di (meaning to be afraid of), scrivere di (meaning to write about).
Ne è molto contenta. She’s very happy about it.
Ne sono conscio. I’m aware of it.
Ne erano stufi. They were fed up with it.
Ne sei sicura? Are you sure (of it)?
Ne hai paura? Are you afraid of it?
Ne ha scritto sul giornale. She’s written about it in the paper.
Non se ne accorge. He doesn’t realize it.
  • With adjectives and verbs followed by dine can be used to refer to nouns that have already been mentioned.
Parliamo del futuro. – Let’s talk about the future.
Sì, parliamone Yes, let’s talk about it.
Hai bisogno della chiave? – Do you need the key?
No, non ne ho più bisogno. No, I don’t need it anymore.
  • Ne usually comes before the verb, except when the verb is an order or the infinitive (the –re form of the verb).
  • When it comes after the verb the final –e of the infinitive is dropped.
Volevo parlarne. I wanted to talk about it.
  • It follows any other pronoun and is written as one word with it and the verb form.
Dammene uno per favore. Give me one of them please.
Dagliene due rossi. Give him two red ones.
  • Note that when joined to nemi becomes meti becomes teci becomes ce,
    vi become ve and gli and le become glie.
Key points
  • ne can be used to mean some.
  • ne can also be used to mean of it or of them when talking about amounts and quantities. Unlike English, it is not optional.
  • ne is used to mean about it or about them with verbs and adjectives followed by di.
  • ne usually comes before the verb.

2  ci

  • Ci is used with certain verbs to mean it or about it.

Ripensandoci mi sono pentito. When I thought it over I was sorry.
Non ci credo per niente. I don’t believe it at all.
Ci penserò. I’ll think about it.
Non ci capisco niente. I can’t understand it at all.
Non so che farci. I don’t know what to do about it.
Provare  Provare a qualcosa
Essere  Essere a qualcuna
Abituato  Abituato a qualcosa
Stare attento  Stare attento a qualcosa
Riuscire  Riuscire a qualcosa
Pensare pensare qualcosa
  • Ci is often used with Italian verbs which are followed by a, for example:
  • credere a qualcosa to believe something, to believe in something
Non ci credo. I don’t believe it.
  • pensare qualcosa to think about something
Non voglio nemmeno pensarci. I don’t even want to think about it.
  • far caso qualcosa to notice something
Non ci ho fatto caso. I didn’t notice.
  • Note that the equivalent English verb may not be followed by any preposition at all.
  • With verbs followed by aci can be used to refer to nouns that have already
    been mentioned.
I fantasmi, non ci credi? Ghosts – don’t you believe in them?
Non pensi mai al futuro? – Don’t you ever think about the
Ci penserò quando sarò più vecchio. future? – I’ll think about it when I’m older.
  • ci is used with the verb entrare in some common idiomatic phrases.
Cosa c’entra? What’s that got to do with it?
Io non c’entro. It’s nothing to do with me.
  • Like neci usually comes before the verb, except when the verb is an order,
    the infinitive (the –re form of the verb) or the –ing form.
Key points
  • ci is used to mean it or about it.
  • ci is used with verbs which can be followed by the preposition a.
  • ci usually comes before the verb.

"Ce" is the form that the "ci" particle assumes when put in front of "lo", "la", "li", "le", or "ne"

3  se

  • This is slightly different as it either means if or self.

La bambina parla con se stessa

The girl speaks to herself

Se means self in the above

 

Lei non sa se viene o va

She does not know if she is coming or not

Se means If in the above.

Conversely, Si can mean we rather than yes in the same way.

Have a test:

19. January 2021 16:11
by Admin
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Hydroxychloroquine: The unproven 'corona drug'

19. January 2021 16:11 by Admin | 0 Comments

Hydroxychloroquine: The unproven 'corona drug' Trump is threatening India for

  • Coronavirus pandemic
 

US President Donald Trump has said the US could "retaliate" if India does not release stocks of a drug he has called a "game-changer" in the fight against Covid-19.

Mr Trump had called India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday, a day after the country banned the export of hydroxychloroquine, which it manufactures in large quantities.

Local media said the government was "considering" Mr Trump's request and a decision is expected on Tuesday.

The US President's comments, made at the White House press briefing on Monday, haven't gone down well with many in India, with critics pointing out that there was no need for him to be so abrasive when Mr Modi has already agreed to help.

The two leaders are on friendly terms and Mr Trump had made a high-profile trip to India recently.

But is India really in a position to help the US? And does hydroxychloroquine even work against the coronavirus?

What is hydroxychloroquine?

Hydroxychloroquine is very similar to Chloroquine, one of the oldest and best-known anti-malarial drugs.

But the drug - which can also treat auto-immune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus - has also attracted attention over the past few decades as a potential antiviral agent.

President Trump said that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had approved it for treating coronavirus, something the organization has denied. Mr Trump later said that it had been approved for "compassionate use" - which means a doctor can give a drug that is yet to be cleared by the government to a patient in a life-threatening condition.

Doctors are able to prescribe chloroquine in these circumstances as it's a registered drug.

So, can India really help President Trump?

Hydroxychloroquine could be bought over the counter and is fairly inexpensive. However, its purchase and use has been severely restricted ever since it was named as a possible treatment for Covid-19.

On Saturday, India banned the export of the drug "without any exception". The order came even as the number of positive cases of Covid-19 spiked in the country. India has now recorded 3,666 active cases of the virus with more than 100 deaths, according to the latest data released by the ministry of health.

But now it seems the government could be reconsidering this stance, possibly following Mr Trump's call to Mr Modi. Local media quoted government sources as saying that a decision on this could be taken as early as Tuesday after considering what domestic requirements could look like in the near future.

The two leaders have a warm personal relationship

But does India - one of the world's largest manufacturers of the drug - have the capacity to actually supply other countries as well?

Yes, according to Ashok Kumar Madan, of the Indian Drug Manufacturer's association.

"India definitely has capacity to cater to both global and local markets. Of course, domestic considerations must come first, but we have the capacity," he told the BBC.

  • Why is Trump so keen on malaria drug to treat coronavirus?
  • India coronavirus doctors 'spat at and attacked'
  • Coronavirus outbreak could cripple India's economy

Mr Madan also denied reports that China had severely limited the export of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) that is used to manufacture hydroxychloroquine. He acknowledged that 70% of all the APIs needed by India to manufacture drugs come from China, but said that supplies from China had steadily continued "by both sea and air".

But does it work?

Many virologists and infectious disease experts have cautioned that the excitement over hydroxychloroquine is premature.

"Chloroquine seems to block the coronavirus in lab studies. There's some anecdotal evidence from doctors saying it has appeared to help," James Gallagher, BBC health correspondent, explained.

But crucially there have been no complete clinical trials which are important to show how the drug behaves in actual patients, although they are under way in China, the US, UK and Spain.

Even so, some are sceptical about how successful they will prove to be.

"If it truly has a dramatic effect on the clinical course of Covid-19 we would already have evidence for that. We don't, which tells us that hydroxychloroquine, if it even works at all, will likely be shown to have modest effects at best," Dr Joyeeta Basu, a senior consultant physician, told the BBC.

American scientists have begun a trial to see if chloroquine will help treat coronavirus

Raman R Gangakhedkar, a senior scientist with the Indian Council of Medical Research, said the policy at the moment is that the drug is not to be used by everyone.

"It is being given to doctors and contacts of lab confirmed cases. When their data will be complied only then a call can be taken whether it should be recommended to everyone," he told reporters last week.

Despite the fact trials are yet to conclude, people have begun to self-medicate - with sometimes disastrous consequences.

There have been multiple reports in Nigeria of people being poisoned from overdoses after people were reportedly inspired by Mr Trump's enthusiastic endorsement of the drug.

An article in the Lancet medical journal also warns hydroxychloroquine can have dangerous side-effects if the dose is not carefully controlled.

This lack of certainty has prompted social media sites like Facebook and Twitter to delete posts that tout it as a cure - even when they are made by world leaders.

19. January 2021 16:02
by Admin
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French professor faces disciplinary case over hydroxychloroquine claims

19. January 2021 16:02 by Admin | 0 Comments

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/nov/12/covid-professor-didier-raoult-hydroxychloroquine

 

French professor faces disciplinary case over hydroxychloroquine claims | World news | The Guardian

French professor faces disciplinary case over hydroxychloroquine claims

 

Didier Raoult stands accused of touting drug as a coronavirus treatment without evidence

Didier Raoult’s promotion of the drug as a Covid treatment was taken up by some populist world leaders. Photograph: Christophe Simon/AFP/Getty Images

A French professor who touts the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine as a coronavirus treatment – without evidence, scientists say – will appear before a disciplinary panel charged with ethics breaches, an order of doctors has said.

Marseille-based Didier Raoult stands accused by his peers of spreading false information about the benefits of the drug. His promotion of hydroxychloroquine was taken up by the US and Brazilian presidents, Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro, who trumpeted its unproven benefits in a way critics say put people’s lives at risk.

No clinical trials have yet found in favour of using hydroxychloroquine against Covid-19, and critics say that due to potential serious side-effects, treating coronavirus patients with it is worse than no treatment at all.

In June, the British-led Recovery trial team said hydroxychloroquine did nothing to reduce coronavirus mortality.

A group representing 500 specialists of France’s Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) filed a complaint with the national order of doctors of the Bouche-du-Rhône department, which includes Marseille, in July. They accused Raoult of breaking nine rules of the doctors’ code of ethics. Other doctors and patients have also lodged complaints.

On Thursday, the order confirmed it had given the go-ahead for a disciplinary hearing after reviewing the complaints against Raoult. The hearing will probably take place next year.

Raoult’s lawyer, Fabrice Di Vizio, confirmed they had received notice of the decision, but said his client would be cleared. If found guilty, Raoult could be fined, merely warned, or barred from practising.

Raoult, who heads the infectious diseases department of La Timone hospital in Marseille, said in March that his study of 80 patients showed “favourable” outcomes in four out of five treated with hydroxychloroquine. But his peers say there is no scientific evidence to back up the claim.

The French president, Emmanuel Macron, visited the scientist on 9 April, at the height of the pandemic, when people in France were observing strict stay-at-home rules.